针对俄罗斯和中国 美国防部发布新的《国防航天战略》(英文)

2020-06-18 智邦网

编译 致远

据c4isr2020年6月17日报道,为应对俄罗斯和中国日益增强的反太空行动能力,美国防部发布新的《国防航天战略》,旨在保持空间领域军事优势。

6月17日,国防部负责航天政策的副国防部长帮办斯特凡•基泰说:“中国、俄罗斯正在推进空间武器化,把空间变为作战领域,不断加强反空间系统开发、测试和部署及相关军事原则,对美国及盟国构成最大战略威胁。”

该战略表明美国防部已将重点转向将太空作为作战领域,包括2019年组建美航天司令部和天军,不断扩大其规模、增强其能力。

尤其是,航天司令部一直极力推动建立俄罗斯业已建立和部署的反太空能力,如直接升空武器及潜在的在轨动能武器。

但远不止动能威胁,还包括电子战、致盲天基传感器的地基激光武器、网络攻击等。

天军正在推进首个新一代进攻性武器研发,预计体积更小、能力更强。

为实现未来十年发展目标,该战略列出4项重点工作:

• 打造航天综合军事优势;

• 将空间纳入国家、联合协同行动;

• 塑造战略环境;

• 加强与盟友、合作伙伴、工业界和其他美国政府部门及业务局合作。

Pentagon releases its Defense Space Strategy to counter Russia and China

The Pentagon has put forward a new Defense Space Strategy designed to maintain U.S. military superiority in space amid growing counter-space efforts in Russia and China.

“China and Russia have weaponized space and turned it into a war-fighting domain,” Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Space Policy Stephen Kitay said during a June 17 press call. “Their actions pose the greatest strategic threat with ongoing development, testing and deployment of counter-space systems and the associated military doctrine designed to hold allied and U.S. space systems at risk.”

The strategy reflects the Defense Department’s shift to approaching space as a war-fighting domain, which includes the establishment of both U.S. Space Command and U.S. Space Force in 2019 as well as the ongoing efforts to bolster those two organizations.

Space Command in particular has been vocal in calling out the counter-space capabilities being built and fielded by Russia, such as direct ascent weapons and potential on-orbit kinetic weapons. But the threat extends beyond kinetic threats to include electronic warfare, ground-based lasers that can blind space-based sensors, and cyberattacks.

Little is known about the Space Force’s first offensive weapon, but the next-generation variant is already in development and is expected to be smaller and more capable.

“The U.S. space enterprise was not built for the current strategic environment,” Kitay said, adding that the U.S. has historically approached space as a supporting domain, where satellites are launched into orbit and relied upon to deliver capability without interruption.

Now, however, the U.S. military is preparing for conflicts that could extend into the space domain, threatening on-orbit assets that war fighters rely on for communications, navigation and intelligence. The self-stated purpose of the strategy is to ensure the space domain is secure, stable and accessible for U.S. and allied activities over the next 10 years through American military strength. Further, it will leverage its space capabilities to employ power across all domains throughout the spectrum of conflict.

“The Defense Space Strategy is the next step to ensure space superiority and to secure the nation’s vital interests in space now and in the future,” Defense Secretary Mark Esper said in a statement. “We desire a secure, stable, and accessible space domain that underpins our nation’s security, prosperity, and scientific achievement. However, our adversaries have made space a war fighting domain and we have to implement enterprise-wide changes to policies, strategies, operations, investments, capabilities, and expertise for this new strategic environment. This strategy identifies a phased approach on how we are going to achieve the desired conditions in space over the next 10 years.”

To achieve these objectives over the next decade, the strategy lays out four lines of effort:

Build a comprehensive military advantage in space. According to the strategy, the Department of Defense must transform its space enterprise to meet the evolving counter-space threats. To do that, the DoD must become more agile, taking advantage of technological and commercial innovation. Specifically, this line of effort calls for further support for the Space Force; development of military space power doctrines; and the further development of space war-fighting expertise and culture.

This effort also includes the fielding of assured space capabilities, including capabilities that can counter the hostile use of space. The strategy also calls for improving U.S. space-based intelligence and command-and-control capabilities.

Integrate space into national, joint and combined operations. As the DoD expands its capabilities, doctrine and culture as outlined above, it plans to integrate them into national, joint and combined operations. Space Command must be enabled to plan, exercise and execute joint and combined space operations across the spectrum of conflict, and space war-fighting efforts must be integrated with military plans and staffs, including those of allies and partners.

The strategy calls for the realignment of operational authorities and an updated rules of engagement that reflect this new reality. In addition, the document states that the DoD’s space program security classifications should be updated.

Shape the strategic environment. Under the strategy, the DoD will try to deter hostile and aggressive activities in space. Partnering with the State Department, the Pentagon will work with allies and partners to develop international norms of behavior for space that will reduce misunderstandings and conflict. In addition, the Pentagon will work to inform the public about the growing threats to U.S. space capabilities.

Cooperate with allies, partners, industry and other U.S. government departments and agencies. This line of effort calls for the DoD to work with allies and partners to increase information sharing; align space policy; promote favorable standards and norms of behavior for space; and expand cooperative research, development and acquisition. In addition, the DoD will modernize its approach to the commercial licensing approval process.


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