美军发布《国防部反小型无人机战略》(英文)

2021-1-9  智邦网

编译 致远

据USNI News网1月8日报道

1月7日,美国防部发布《国防部反小型无人机战略》,称小型无人机呈指数级增长,越来越多地用于作战,成为强有力武器。

为应对挑战,美国防部将制定全范围整体战略。2019年11月,国防部长指定陆军部长为国防部反小型无人机(1、2、3类小型无人机)执行部门,陆军部长设立反小型无人机联合办公室,负责同意组织、协同和指导反小型无人机业务。
《国防部反小型无人机战略》明确美国本土、东道国和突发事件反小型无人机体系架构。国防部相关部门将加强协同以实现三个战略目标:

一是加强创新协作,促进联合部队建设,以保护本土、东道国和突发事件地区国防部人员、资产和设施;

二是研发装备和非装备型解决方案,促进国防部任务的安全、可靠执行,阻止对手妨碍国防部目标的相关能力;

三是建立和扩大与盟友、伙伴的关系,以保护国内外利益。
为实现上述目标,国防部将加强三方面工作:

1.做好部队战备,最大限度提高目前反小型无人机能力,使用基于风险的方法来指导装备和非装备型解决方案的高效、快速开发;

2.保卫部队,将从条令、组织、训练、装备、领导、教育、人员、设施和政策方面支持建立联合能力,同步发展作战概念和理论;

3.建立团队,创新伙伴关系,扩大信息共享,以应对新挑战。


New Counter-Drone Strategy Calls for ‘Holistic’ Approach Across Services

The Defense Department must employ an all-encompassing agency-wide approach to its strategy for buying and using small drones to combat future threats, according to a new Pentagon document.

The Pentagon’s Counter-Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems strategy, spearheaded by the Army and unveiled on Thursday, calls for the service branches to streamline their work to produce unmanned aerial capabilities for the joint force.

“The DoD C-sUAS strategy provides the framework for addressing sUAS across the spectrum from hazard to threat in the homeland, host nations, and contingency locations,” the report reads.
“Department stakeholders will work collaboratively to achieve three strategic objectives: (1) enhance the Joint Force through innovation and collaboration to protect DoD personnel, assets, and facilities in the homeland, host nations, and contingency locations; (2) develop materiel and non-materiel solutions that facilitate the safe and secure execution of DoD missions and deny adversaries the ability to impede our objectives; and (3) build and broaden our relationships with allies and partners to protect our interests at home and abroad.”

The report says the Pentagon should use its various research and development efforts to develop new small drones the services will need for conflict.

“We will rapidly develop innovative solutions while leveraging a risk-based assessment process. This approach will enable us to make better-informed decisions that balance the effectiveness and efficiency of systems within budgetary realities. These actions will maximize our ability to provide the Joint Force with the most effective capabilities for use in the homeland, host nations, and contingency locations,” the report reads.
“We must also continuously evaluate the efficiency of our processes to provide effective materiel and non-materiel solutions to the Joint Force,” it continues. “Transformational processes, such as the Adaptive Acquisition Framework, can streamline efforts to meet the unique requirements of the C-sUAS problem set. However, some of our acquisition processes are optimized to support conventional operations with long-lead times for capability development.”

Speaking at an event about the report on Friday at the Center for Strategic & International Studies, C-UAS Office Director Maj. Gen. Sean Gainey said his team is assessing how both 5G and Artificial Intelligence may factor into the requirements for small drones in the future.

“If you look at the threat we’re looking at now and the systems we’ve developed now and the areas we’re focused in on is really looking at the UAS’s that have a controlled operator and finding ways to cut that link between operators. Well, where we see the threat going in the future is autonomous . . . massing swarming capability and integrating AI and potentially leveraging 5G out in the future,” Gainey said. “These are some of the challenge areas that we’re looking at as we look at our requirements for developing future capabilities. These are the areas we’re looking to address to be able to have capability as that technology comes on board and becomes more prevalent.”

The strategy report comes as the Pentagon wrestles with how to combat the threat posed by small unmanned aerial systems. Pentagon acquisition chief Ellen Lord has expressed concerns over how China has filled the market with cheap, small drones and therefore affected the American industrial base for small UASs.

The report points to several countries – including Russia, China and Iran – that are using small UASs and argues their existence threatens the joint force.

“Hostile nation states have learned from the successes of non-state actors and the United States in the employment of sUAS. Some of these nations have become beneficiaries in this rapidly expanding market. Others are fielding purpose-built military and consumer-grade sUAS in large numbers, which provide scalable options for defensive and offensive operations,” the report reads.
“For China, the development of sUAS generates both an economic incentive and a military benefit,” it continues. “As a major producer of commercial and consumer sUAS, China is estimated to have 70 percent of the global market share. Militarily, China’s capabilities and reach will continue to grow as it invests heavily in developing and fielding advanced weapons.”

With several lines of effort to pursue its goals, the strategy lays out how the Defense Department will tackle the growing use of UAS technology.

“To Ready the Force, DoD will maximize current C-sUAS capabilities and use a risk-based approach to guide efficient and rapid development of a suite of materiel and non-materiel solutions to address emerging requirements. To Defend the Force, DoD will coordinate the delivery of joint capabilities underpinned by [doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, facilities, and policy] consideration and synchronize the development of operational concepts and doctrine. Finally, as the global military partner of choice, DoD will Build the Team by leveraging its existing relationships, create new partnerships, and expand information sharing to meet emerging challenges.”

In 2019, the Pentagon put the Army at the helm of the C-UAS effort, which led to this week’s report signed by Acting Defense Secretary Christopher Miller.


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