美发布评估报告对国防工业基础提出预警(英文)

2021-2-3  智邦网

编译  致远

据 Defensenews网2月2日报道

2月2日,美国防工业协会发布第二份年度“生命体征”报告,提出:由于网络漏洞不断增加,美国防工业基础健康状况处于中等“C”级别,应对危机提高产量的能力差,国防预算面临重重政治障碍。

报告称,美国防工业基础尽管竞争力、盈利能力和需求不断提高,但因新冠疫情影响仍处于萎缩状态。

报告对八个绩效领域从0到100进行评分,得出2020年国防工业的平均分为74。

政府数据公司Govini共同编制了该数据统计报告,把五角大楼2018年国防工业基础评估方法作为研究基点。

该协会首席执行官霍克·卡莱尔说:“国防工业基础面临重重阻力:工业安全威胁、未来国防预算持平、技术人才短缺、从业人员裁减、减少科技创新投入。此外,对新企业准入的监管负担和壁垒不断增加,导致参与国防工业基础进入国防市场的公司数量部队减少。”

该报告对国防工业安全提出预警,称随着数据泄露和网络安全漏洞激增,国防工业综合安状况“明显持续恶化”,在所有排名中得分最低,仅56分。
国防工业基础危机期间满足迅速扩产的能力,仅获66分。协会对军工企业的分析表明,在最初30天,国防工业基础会迅速提升,但此后进展速度将很快放缓,要取得超过100%的增长需要180天。

半数以上的企业称,拥有熟练劳动力是提高国防生产的要素。16.5 %的企业认为,人力资本短缺是国防供应链最脆弱的环节。

报告称,国防工业从业人员规模已从上世纪80年代中期的320万减少到目前的110万。


The report card is in for the US defense industry’s health

WASHINGTON ― The health of America’s defense industrial base ranks a middling “C” due to growing cyber vulnerabilities, a poor ability to surge production in a crisis, and political obstacles for defense budgeting, according to a lead defense trade group’s new study.

the defense industrial base entered the COVID-19 pandemic in a weakened state despite healthier marks for competition, profitability and demand.

The report, released Tuesday, graded eight performance areas from 0 to 100 for an average score of 74 for the year 2020. Government data firm Govini co-produced the data-driven report, which used the Pentagon’s 2018 assessment of the defense industrial base as a jumping off point.

“The defense industrial base is facing multiple headwinds: industrial security threats, flat future defense budgets, a shortage of skilled, cleared workers and decreased investments in the sciences that fuel U.S. innovation,” NDIA’s chief executive, Hawk Carlisle, said in a statement. “Add to these the increased regulatory burdens and barriers for new entrants, which continue to shrink both the number of companies that participate in the DIB and the number of new companies entering the defense marketplace.”

He added that the report, which makes no recommendations, ought to drive discussions as the Pentagon ramps up for competition with China and Russia.

Though the study predates both COVID-19 and the revelation that elite cyber spies have spent months secretly exploiting SolarWinds’ software to peer into computer networks, it raised alarms over industrial security. As data breaches and cybersecurity vulnerabilities both surged, industrial security overall showed “clear and continued deterioration,” ranking the lowest of all with a 56.

The industrial base’s ability to meet surge demand during a crisis received a failing grade of 66. Companies NDIA surveyed said that in the first 30 days, the industrial base could ramp up quickly but the rate of progress would slow soon thereafter; more than a 100 percent increase would take 180 days.

More than half of firms said the availability of skilled labor would be a factor in increasing defense production, and 16.5 percent said a gap in U.S.-based human capital was the most vulnerable part of their supply chain ― in part fueled by a security clearance backlog. The size of the defense industry workforce fell to about 1.1 million people from its mid-1980s peak of 3.2 million, the report said.

An analysis of public opinion, congressional action and regulatory action downgraded the “political and regulatory” outlook by 10 points since 2018 ― even prior to the pandemic and a related emphasis on domestic spending. A key factor was a new Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification framework and its “additional regulatory burdens for all defense contractors,” the report said.

Also, public opinion in favor of defense spending saw its largest decline since the Reagan-era defense buildup of the 1980s: A Gallup poll found that 17 percent of respondents felt the United States is spending too little on national defense and military purposes, down from 25 percent in 2019 and 33 percent in 2018.

Industry can be pleased the “Demand” category jumped 16 points, corresponding with an increase in contract obligations issued by the Department of Defense. DoD contract obligations grew from $329 billion in fiscal 2017 to $394 billion in fiscal 2020, marking about a 20 percent increase. Foreign military sales also grew by nearly 20 percent over the same time period.

Among all categories, major defense platforms ― aircraft, naval vessels and land vehicles ― were awarded the largest share of total contract obligation value, but contract obligation value for electronics and communication services grew 89 percent, leading all service categories.

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