俄罗斯和伊朗加强网络战合作(英文)

2021-2-9  智邦网

编译  致远

据c4isrnet网2月8日报道

俄罗斯和伊朗上周达成信息安全协议,在信息与通信技术 (ICT)等广泛领域加强合作,应对西方国家互联网攻击。

俄罗斯外长谢尔盖·拉夫罗夫宣布,鉴于网络问题日益重要,对两国国际关系和各国安全的影响不断加深,俄罗斯和伊朗开展合作有助于双方“加强业务协调,共同应对威胁”。

伊朗外交部把俄伊之间的网络合作成为“一个里程碑”。该协议宣布,为确保国家和国际安全国际,合作包括对网络入侵的监测和打击。

协议提出,莫斯科和德黑兰将共享美国网络战情报信息,抵御外来网络威胁,重点针对美国网络司令部。

新协议建立在双方信息领域现有合作基础上。2018年,德黑兰提出双方成立媒体合作双边委员会的倡议,旨在打击西方国家的“媒体恐怖主义”活动。

该委员会聚焦记者交流、相互提供有价值的媒体报道、联合组织新闻报道、反击西方媒体歪曲报道、针对西方国家受众组织媒体合作等。

俄罗斯将在新媒体平台建设和技术方面给伊朗提供帮助。


Russia-Iran cooperation poses challenges for U.S. cyber strategy, global norms

Russia and Iran inked an agreement last month on information security, a term that in Russian strategic doctrine encompasses not only cyber but information and communications technology (ICT) more broadly. Such cooperation will help these authoritarian regimes to continue suppressing internal dissent and to expand joint efforts to counter the Western goal of preserving an open and free internet.

According to Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, the deal will allow Russia and Iran “to coordinate [their] activities given the growing importance of cyber issues and their increasing impact on” both “international relations” and “situations in various countries.” Andrei Krutskikh, Moscow’s lead diplomat on information security, elaborated that the agreement stipulates broad cybersecurity cooperation, including coordination of actions, exchange of technologies, training of specialists, and coordination at the United Nations and other international organizations.

Calling the deal “a milestone” in Russian-Iranian cyber cooperation, Iran’s Foreign Ministry said that the agreement envisions “international cooperation including detection” of cyber intrusions and “coordination … to ensure national and international security.” This statement suggests that Moscow and Tehran may share intelligence about U.S. cyber operations, posing new challenges for U.S. Cyber Command as it seeks to “defend forward” against foreign cyber threats. Moreover, stronger Iranian defenses may complicate America’s ability to use cyber operations to respond to Iranian aggression as the Trump administration reportedly did.

Last week’s agreement follows a preliminary Russian-Iranian cyber deal in 2015, which the head of Iran’s Civil Defense Organization said was necessary because the two countries face common enemies in cyberspace. In 2017, Moscow and Tehran signed a memorandum of understanding for cooperation on ICT-related issues, including “internet governance, network security,” and “international internet connection.”

Under the new agreement, Tehran stated, the two countries will cooperate against “crimes committed with the use of” ICT, which these authoritarian regimes define as including political dissent. As with Tehran-Beijing cooperation on Iran’s national internet, Tehran will likely seek to learn from Moscow’s efforts to develop the Russian surveillance state and so-called “sovereign internet.” The latter is designed to expand Moscow’s censorship and monitoring capabilities and enable it to “unplug” connections to the global internet, which Russian President Vladimir Putin has called “a CIA project.” During 2019 and 2020 workinggroup meetings on ICT cooperation, for example, Moscow offered to help Iran emulate Russia’s Smart Cityproject, which allows authorities to track citizens through technologies such as facial recognition — something Moscow specifically offered to provide to Iran.

Tehran will also likely seek insights — and potentially technology — from Russia as both nations seek to reduce their dependence on Western technology. In 2016, the countries agreed to cooperate on “demonopolizing software” to end “unilateral Western domination” in the field. For example, Iran may be interested in a Russian alternative to Windows and in Russia’s “MyOffice” product, which allows for local data storage. In 2017, Moscow offered to provide Tehran with Russian servers built on Russian processors.

The new agreement also builds on existing collaboration in the information sphere. In 2018, at Tehran’s initiative, the two sides established a bilateral committee on media cooperation, aimed at combating what Tehran’s delegation head has called Western “media terrorism.” The committee works on issues such as exchanges of journalists, mutual provision of favorable media coverage, coproduction of content, counteringWestern media narratives, and media cooperation targeting foreign audiences. Russia has also provided the Iranians with training in new media platforms and techniques.

Additionally, Russian and Iranian disinformation and global communications efforts have converged since the COVID-19 crisis began. In August 2020, that convergence culminated in a Russian-Iranian agreement to counter what Russia’s Foreign Ministry called “increasing information pressure from the West” designed “to discredit Russia and Iran,” as well as alleged Western discrimination against Russian and Iranian media abroad.

For Russia, last week’s agreement is part of a broader effort that has seen Moscow sign over 30 international cyber cooperation agreements and at least 50 international media cooperation agreements since 2014. These agreements often involve countries Moscow sees as areas of historical Russian influence or as vulnerable to Western interference.

As analysts at the Institute for the Study of War (ISW) have documented, Moscow uses these deals to expand its human and institutional networks, cultivate Russia’s image as a trustworthy information security partner, and promote Kremlin-friendly outlets, narratives, and global information security norms while countering perceived Western “digital neocolonialism” and destabilization. The ISW analysts warn that Moscow may also seek to enhance Russia’s cyberattack capabilities by expanding its access to foreign cyber infrastructure and systems.

Tehran also supports Russia’s ongoing push at the United Nations to advance authoritarian-friendly rules and norms of state control of the internet. Similar efforts are underway at the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), where Iran holds observer status and has called for increased cooperation against “cyber terrorism” stemming from foreign social media networks. Russia and Iran also both participate in the Russia-based Caspian Media Forum, established in 2015 to facilitate discussion on issues such as combating “imposed external values alien to” regional countries.

To counter authoritarian corruption of internet norms and to cooperate with allies and partners to hold malicious hackers accountable, “well-resourced and persistent diplomatic efforts” are essential, as the congressionally mandated Cyberspace Solarium Commission observed in its March 2020 report. During his confirmation hearing, Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin commented that from the Pentagon’s perspective “it is absolutely important that the State Department be resourced adequately.” Indeed, U.S. Cyber Command chief Gen. Paul Nakasone has noted that U.S. cyber “capabilities are meant to complement, not replace” diplomacy and other tools of U.S. statecraft.

To date, however, the State Department’s efforts have fallen short. Both the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and members of Congress have criticized the State Department’s cyber diplomacy for its poor interagency coordination and inefficiency. In a report released last week, the GAO concluded that as currently structured, the State Department may not be able to “effectively set priorities and allocate appropriate resources to achieve its intended goals.” Given this assessment as well as the expanding cooperation among U.S. adversaries, the Biden administration and Congress should work together to better resource and organize the State Department to defend U.S. values and interests in cyberspace.


相关信息

英军加速推进太空“天网”系统升级(英文)

美国防部要求加强与工业界5G网络开发(英文)

      拜登政府组织美军战略态势及实施路径评估(英文)

北约将建立航天卓越中心(英文)

美国防部将审查全球美军部署情况(英文)

俄罗斯打造全球首款能击落无人机的反坦克综合系统

挪威推出新型长续航无人潜航器

美空军加速Golden Horde 蜂群弹开发(英文)

        美“空中博格”项目将开发多无人机多任务系统(英文)

          美陆军欧洲司令:应建立战区多域战特遣部队(英文)

           美众议院新设军用网络信息技术创新监督机构(英文)

        美提名副防长呼吁制定人工智能发展评判指标(英文)

美发布评估报告对国防工业基础提出预警(英文)